A recent (2012) study conducted on mice confirmed anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of pea protein hydrolysates (PPH). PPH showed significant inhibition of nitric oxide, a naturally occurring by-product of cellular metabolism which can be damaging to the cells in excessive amounts. Significant inhibition was also shown against the production of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha) and IL-6 (interleukin-6)—signaling molecules produced in the body as part of an immune response to inflammation. Inflammation in the body can be caused by various chronic diseases or cancer resulting in elevated levels of TNF-α and IL-6 among other similar molecules. Reference: Ndiaye et al. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of an enzymatic protein hydrolysate from yellow field pea seeds. Eur J Nutr. 2012; 51:29–37.